Geniuses of architecture
Modernisme developed inCataloniain the period spanning the closing decades of the 19th and opening decades of the 20th century, and was a broad cultural movement embracing all the arts: music, literature, painting, sculpture and architecture. Economic growth and the rise of a political and intellectual movement to revive the national Catalan identity co-existed during that period with the aim of creating a modern culture in keeping with the latest trends ineurope. Alongside the internationally highly regarded Antoni Gaudí are the other notable architects of the period, Lluís Domènech i Montaner, Josep Puig i Cadafalch and Josep Maria Jujol. Their work recreates a wide range of influences -from Gothic revival to the modern style- in an original manner, and became the starting point of aCatalanSchoolof architecture that has survived to the present day.
·Casa Milà (La Pedrera) (1905 - 1910).Impressive undulating façade and wrought-iron balconies. Part of the building is used as a cultural centre with exhibition rooms and an auditorium. On display in the Espai Gaudí are drawings, models, photographs and audiovisuals on Gaudí and his times. The "Pis de la Pedrera" (The Apartment) contains a reconstruction of a period’s interior.
·Park Güell (1900 - 1914).A garden city in which Gaudí managed to blend nature and architecture in supreme fashion.
·Palau Güell (1886 - 1888).The building that Gaudí designed for his patron, Eusebi Güell, just off La Rambla inBarcelona.
·Casa Batlló (1904 - 1906).This is one of Gaudí's mature buildings; radiating intense naturalism yet is, at the same time, abstract. The main floor (i.e. the first floor) was also decorated by Gaudí and is one of the best examples of his work as an interior designer. From 2004 to 2006, its centennial is being celebrated; therefore, in addition to the main floor, the attic and chimney areas have also been opened to the public.
·Sagrada Família. Gaudí's unfinished work. Particularly noteworthy are the Nativity Façade, the stylised towers and the remarkable pinnacles.
·Crypt at Colònia Güell (1898 - 1915) in Santa Coa de Garraf). One of the most important works of architecture of the 20th century.
Casa Vicens, inBarcelona, Gaudí's first building constructed in brick and coloured marble.
OTHER BUILDINGS BY GAUDÍ
•Casa Calvet, Torre de Bellesguard and the pavilions at Finca Güell inBarcelona.
•Misteri de Glòria inMontserrat(Catalunya Central).
•Cellers Güell (winery) in Garraf (Costa de Garraf).
•Cooperativa La Obrera Mataronense in Mataró (Costa del Maresme).
•Jardins Artigues in La Pobla de Lillet (Pirineus).
If you want to breathe the ‘air' of Antoni Gaudí, you should make sure you take a stroll through Reus and Riudoms (Costa Daurada), in particular Casa Gaudí and Mas de la Calderera (belonging to his mother's side of the family) in Riudoms, described as "the place he loved most in the world".
Domènech i Montaner
Lluís Domènech i Montaner (Barcelona, 1850 - 1923) was an architect, historian, interior designer, urban developer and politician. He designed major public buildings such as the Palau de la Música Catalana concert hall and the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau inBarcelona, both declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.
His works combine rationalism, a use of new materials and technologies and a passion for the applied arts, as can be seen in their mosaics, stained-glass windows, sculptures and wrought ironwork.
·Palau de la Música Catalana (1905 - 1908) This is one of the most emblematic of Modernista works. The auditorium and stage are an unusual, luminous and colourful space thanks to the use of large polychrome windows and the spectacular sculptures around the stage.
·Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (1902) A hospital set amidst gardens with detached pavilions and a monumental entrance built of brick and mosaics and incorporating sculptures by various artists including Pau Gargallo.
•Editorial Montaner i Simó, now home to the Fundació Antoni Tàpies.
•Castell dels Tres Dragons, now the Museu de Zoologia.
·Casa Lleó Morera.
One of the buildings of the so-called "Manzana de la Discordia" (Block of Discord due to the different styles of the buildings).
·Fonda Espanya just off La Rambla. The original decor of the restaurant still survives.
Elsewhere in Catalonia
CANET DE MAR (Costa del Maresme)
•Casa-Museu Lluís Domènech i Montaner, his architect's studio which contains drawings, models and the drawing board that he designed.
•The Ateneu Obrer, Castell de Santa Florentina, rebuilt by Domènech
•Casa Roura (Ca la Bianga)
·Institut Pere Mata
Built between 1897 and 1912, which is still used as a psychiatric hospital
•Casa Navàs, with furnishing by Gaspar Homar
•Mausoleum of James I the Conqueror
L'ESPLUGA DE FRANCOLÍ (Costa Daurada)
Puig i Cadafalch
The name of Josep Puig i Cadafalch (Mataró, 1867 - Barcelona, 1956) is associated with some of the greatest cultural undertakings inCataloniain the 20th century, such as the urban development of the hill of Montjuïc, the refurbishment plans forBarcelonaand the excavations at Empúries. An architect and urban developer, a historian of art and a politician, Puig i Cadafalch designed emblematic buildings such as Casa de les Punxes, Casa Amatller and Cavas Codorniu. Works by him can be seen inBarcelona, Mataró, Argentona and Sant Sadurní d'Anoia.
•Casa Amatller, now the Centre del Modernisme.
•Palau Macaya on Passeig de Sant Joan.
•Casa Terrades, otherwise known as Casa de les Punxes, on Diagonal.
•On Montjuïc are the Casaramona factory, now home to CaixaForum, and the pavilions in the exhibition centre grounds.
•Palau Baró de Quadras, to be occupied by Casa Asia.
•Casa Martí (Els Quatre Gats café), Casa Serra and Casa Company.
IN SANT SADURNÍ D'ANOIA (Costa de Garraf)
•The Cavas Codorniu wine cellars are neo-medieval in inspiration.
IN MATARÓ (Costa del Maresme)
•Casa Coll i Regàs, Can Sisternes, La Beneficència, the Council Chamber in the Town Hall, Casa Parera and El Rengle market.
IN ARGENTONA (Costa del Maresme)
•Can Garí, the Puig i Cadafalch family's summer residence.
For many years considered merely one of Gaudí's collaborators, Josep Maria Jujol i Gibert (Tarragona, 1879 - Barcelona, 1949) was himself the architect of a number of unusual buildings and made use of poor materials which he transformed into balconies, lamps and furnishings.
•The Mañac shop, Casa Planells and the Monumental Fountain in Plaça d'Espanya.
IN SANT JOAN DESPÍ (Barcelona)
•Can Negre and Torre de la Creu (also known as Torre dels Ous).
IN CAMP DETARRAGONA(Costa Daurada)
•The Church of the Sagrat Cor in Vistabella (La Secuita), bapisterio and presbiterio of the parochial church of constantino, the bell tower of Iglesiade Sant Jaume to Creixell, the Hermitage of Montserrat in Montferri, the Hermitage of Roser in Vallmoll, the refurbishment of Casa Bofarull in Els Pallaresos, and Casa Ximenis and Casa Abad and the Teatre Metropol in Tarragona.
Modernisme was the style used inCataloniato build hospitals, convents, theatres, factories, private homes and summer residences. The architectural style was adapted to suit all these purposes, as can be seen in the factories in Terrassa, noble residences inReusand Cau Ferrat, a combined house and museum, in Sitges, where the bohemian Modernistas would gather.
A trip through Modernisme
This consists of a range of visits and tourist services in the three towns.
INREUS(Costa Daurada). Trade inReusin 1900 was an important factor in the spread of Modernisme. Gaudí began his training inReusbut it was Domènech i Montaner who left the greatest trace here: Casa Rull, Casa Navàs, Casa Gasull and the Institut Pere Mata.
IN SITGES (Costa de Garraf). Here one can appreciate the universality of Modernisme, as a large number of the intellectuals of the period would meet up in Sitges. The group of buildings comprising the Maricel, Casa-Museu Cau Ferrat, Casa Bonaventura Blai, the Mercat (Market), the Town Hall, Casa Pere Carreras i
Robert and the Teatre Casino Prado.
IN TERRASSA (Catalunya Central). Modernisme was given added impetus here through numerous cultural and above all industrial buildings, including the Museu de la Ciència i de la Tècnica de Catalunya (formerly the Vapor Aymerich, Amat i Jover mill), the Sala Muncunill, Casa Alegre de Sagrera, Freixa farmhouse, the Teatre Principal, the Escola Industrial and the Town Hall
The three architects route
This route centres around three of the most important Modernista works in the city ofTarragona: the altar in theChurchofJesúsi Maria by Gaudí; the Metropol Theatre by Jujol; and the mausoleum of James I by Domènech i Montaner.
Things to see. The Mercat Central, Casa Ripoll, La Salle school (now the Universitat Rovira i Virgili), Casa Sales, the monument to Roger de Llúria, Casa Ximenis, the convent of the Teresian nuns, the Quinta Sant Rafael, the Metropol Theatre, the convent of the Carmelite nuns and the Chapel of Sant Francesc.
European Modernista route.
There are five unique Modernista buildings inBarcelonawhich have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.
Things to see. Palau Güell, Palau de la Música Catalana, the "Manzana de la Discordia" - consisting of Casa Batlló, Casa Amatller and Casa Lleó Morera on Passeig de Gràcia - the Fundació Antoni Tàpies, La Pedrera, Sagrada Família, Park Güell, Casa Museu Gaudí and the Museu d'Art Modern-MNAC.
Modernisme routes nearBarcelona:
•"Sitges in the time of Modernisme".
•"Industrial and Modernista Terrassa".
•"Modernista summer homes in Vallès Oriental".
•"Modernisme in Alt Penedès. A walk amongst the vines".
•"Modernisme in Maresme - The Legacy of Domènech i Montaner and Puig i Cadafalch".
•"Alt Berguedà: Gaudí's Modernisme in natural surroundings".
•"Baix Llobregat: from Gaudí to popular Modernisme".
•"Manresa: Modernisme and Art Déco".
A century of Architecture
Catalan architecture of the second half of the 20th century is for many people a revelation.Cataloniahas become of point of reference for contemporary architecture and urban development.
The momentum of Modernisme continued in the work of Cèsar Martinell, Manuel J. Raspall i Mallol, Joan Rubió i Bellver, Francesc Morera, Rafael Masó and Enric Sagnier Villavechia. Noteworthy amongst their various works are the 40 wineries and agricultural constructions by Cèsar Martinell, mostly inTarragona, the Escorxador (Slaughterhouse) in Lleida (1912 - 1915) by Francesc Morera and the Farinera Teixidor (1910 - 1911) flourmill by Rafael Masó. The GATCPAC, a group of architects whose members included Josep Lluís Sert, who designed the Fundació Miró inBarcelona, put the postulates of Le Corbusier into practice and built a number of pioneering works inBarcelona.
Catalan architecture of the second half of the 20th century is for many people a revelation. The works of Josep Antoni Coderch, Oriol Bohigas, Carlos Ferrater, Oscar Tusquets, Ricardo Bofill and Enric Miralles make Catalan architecture one of the most fascinating inEurope.Cataloniahas become of point of reference for contemporary architecture and urban development through the construction of works by Richard Meier, Arata Isozaki, Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Norman Foster, Jean Nouvel, Richard Rogers and Dominique Perrault.
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